A retrospective review was performed of the records of 85 children with urinary-tract calculi evaluated and treated during a 12-year period. The study evaluated the patients' age, sex, initial complaints, etiology, relevant pathological factors, stone location, mode of treatment, and stone analysis. There were 68 boys and 17 girls, a ratio of 4:1. Patient age ranged from 10 months to 16 years (average 8.2 years). Flank pain was the most common manifestation. Seventy patients bad calculi in the upper urinary tract and 31 in the lower urinary tract; 16 had stones in more than one site and 15 had bilateral stones. Hypercalciuria was the most common metabolic disorder. Most patients underwent open surgical procedures for removal of their calculi; 5 stones were successfully removed endoscopically. In 3 cases, the stones passed spontaneously. Calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones were present in 32 cases, struvite in 5, cystine in 2, and uric acid in I Urolithiasis is still one of the most common pediatric urologic problems in Turkey, but as living standards improve, the incidence of the disease has tended to decline in recent years. Anatomic anomalies and metabolic disorders are of great importance in the etiology of stone disease.