JOURNAL OF ADHESION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.28, no.13, pp.1219-1242, 2014 (SCI-Expanded)
This experimental study investigates the low-speed impact behavior of adhesively bonded similar (Al-Al, St-St) and dissimilar (Al-St, St-Al) plates. The after-impact geometries of the front and back faces of the bonded plates, which were visualized by measuring the displacements, were in good agreement with the simulated surface geometries obtained by using explicit finite element method. The plate stiffness was affective on the deflections of the bonded plates; thus, the bonded Al-Al plates exhibited maximum deflections, contact durations, and minimal contact force levels, whereas the bonded St-St plates had minimum deflections, contact durations, and maximum contact force levels. As the impact energy is increased, the impact forces, durations, and deflections increased naturally; however, the impact force-time histories were not affected evidently. The bonded Al-Al plates can dissipate the impact energy more effectively than the bonded St-St plates. The experimental and simulated contact force-time histories were generally in good agreement. Based on the cross-section photographs of the damaged impact regions the bonded Al-Al plates with low stiffness can deform plastically and dissipate most of the impact energy, and the adhesive layer remains compatible with the deformation of the plates. The interfacial fractures appear along the back plate-adhesive interface for the low impact energy but along both front and back plate-adhesive interfaces and cracks propagated to the back interface to lower interface through the adhesive thickness near the boundaries of the impactor trace. The bonded St-St plates behave more rigid, transmit the impact energy directly to the adhesive layer and the high impact force distributions result severe fractures not only interfacially but also through the adhesive thickness. The color transformations, which are indications of fracture formation and propagation speed in some way, were observed around the adhesive fractures. Although the bonded St-Al and Al-St plates had a fracture mechanism similar to those of the bonded Al-Al plates but the color transformation near the fractures and the crack opening displacement levels were more evident. The existence of a stiffer plate affects considerably the damage formation in the adhesive layer and in the plates, whereas the less stiff plates can dissipate the impact energy by deforming plastically and the adhesive layer experiences less local damages.