Special education has a long history in Western and developing countries. However, literature rarely mentions special education in Turkey, therefore, there are questions about the historical milestones in the Turkish history of special education. The purpose of this paper is to educate the reader about how the treatment and education of people with disabilities in Turkey has evolved throughout history. This literature review will show that Turkey has a long history of providing adaptive education to people with disabilities and gifted and talented students. Innovative practices such as music therapy, herbal medicine, hospitals and Enderun Schools for gifted students were employed in Turkey. This paper specifically focuses on the history of special education in Turkey from the Ottoman period to the present day.