The results of measurement and monitoring of reflection and transmission properties of cement-based specimens (blocks of mortar, concrete) obtained by using a simple and an inexpensive measurement system at microwave frequencies (X-band) are presented. Dependencies of the reflection and transmission coefficients on water-to-cement (w/c) ratio, preparing and curing conditions of the specimens are demonstrated. It is shown that the amplitudes of reflection and transmission coefficients, together with thickness of the specimens, determine the complex dielectric permittivity of the hardened cement-based specimens. The expected applications of the results for the determination of physical properties of cement-based materials are discussed. The causes and effects of measurement errors and uncertainties are also discussed.