Purpose: To determine the prevalence of surgical site infections (SSIs) after orthopedic surgery at Erciyes University hospital and to identify associated risk factors, predominant infecting organisms and mortality rates. Patients ad Methods: A week prevalence study was carried out between December 21st and December 27th, 2003. Center for Disease Control criteria were used prospectively to identify cases of SSI in patients who underwent orthopedic surgery. All patients were followed for a four weeks postoperatively and all SSIs were recorded. The complete medical records of each case were reviewed, and data on 12 possible risk factors were extracted. Statistical analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for SSIs. Results: A total of eight postoperative SSIs were identified among 60 cases included in the study, with a resulting overall infection rate of 13.3%. Infection was limited to soft tissue in all cases. The risk of SSI was increased by the duration ofpreoperative hospitalization (odds ratio [OR], 1.261; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.100-1.445; p=0.001) andduration of antimicrobial prophylaxis (OR, 1.197; 95% CI, 1.053-1.360; p=0.01). The predominantly isolated microorganisms in patients with SSIs were Staphylococcus aureus (36.4%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.3%). Conclusion: In orthopedic surgery, longer duration of preoperative hospitalization and antimicrobial prophylaxis were independently associated with SSI after orthopedic surgery. Identification of the risk factors for SSIs will contribute to improve patient care and may decrease mortality and morbidity of orthopedic surgery patients.