In the present study, it was aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile and antimicrobial effects of Phlomis lunariifolia Sm., Phlomis amanica Vierh., Phlomis monocephala P.H. Davis, Phlomis sieheana Rech. fil, Phlomis armeniaca Willd. essential oils collected from Turkey. The Phlomis essential oils were obtained from the aerial parts by hydrodistillation and were subsequently analyzed both by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chromatographic separations followed by structure identification of individual compounds of interest from Phlomis essential oils were conducted using 1D and 2D NMR, FT-IR, UV and HRMS techniques. In addition, antimicrobial studies using a microdilution assay and TLC bioautography were applied to the essential oils and the relevant components. The analysis of the essential oils led to the identification of 143 compounds, where an unknown volatile compound was detected as the major compound (22.8% and 12.7%) in the essential oils of P. amanica and P. monocephala, respectively. After chromatographic clean up, the isolation and characterization of this compound resulted in (-)-8(14),15-isopimaradien-11 alpha-ol. The sesquiterpene germacrene-D was identified as the major constituent of P. lunariifolia (7.7%), P. sieheana (16.6%) and P. armeniaca (23.4%) oils. 4-Methoxycarbonyl-7-methyl cyclopenta[c]pyrane - a fulvoiridoid - was obtained by acid hydrolysis from iridoid ipolamiide which was shown to be present in the oils of P. armeniaca (1.4%) and P. sieheana (0.2%). Furthermore, Phlomis essential oils were investigated for their antifungal properties using a TLC bioautographic assay where the diterpene was shown as the active principle against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis when compared with standard antifungal agents. Minimum inhibitory concentrations against various human pathogenic bacteria (from 125 to > 1000 mu g/ml), C. albicans and C. tropicalis (62.5-1000 mu g/ml), were determined using a microdilution assay. The results obtained from this study suggest that essential oils and their individual compounds thereof may be potential resource and ingredients for pharmaceuticals or cosmetics with antimicrobial activity. To cite this article: B. Demirci et al., C R. Chimie 12 (2009). (C) 2008 Academie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.