Objectives Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. The NO system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the healing effect of pentoxifylline on NOS in STZ-induced diabetic rat's kidney. Material and methods In this study, 50 Wistar albino male rats were used. The rats were divided into five groups; Group C control; Group D only diabetes; Group D + PI and D + PII diabetes + pentoxifylline; Group P only pentoxifylline. Group DPI rats received just pentoxifylline from the beginning of the experiments. However, Group DPII rats received saline in the first month and 50 mg/kg/day of pentoxifylline for the following month. At the end of two months, NOS expressions in kidney tissue were assessed using qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis. Results At the end of the experiments, desquamation of the epithelial cells of the tubules, clear glycogen-filled distal tubules and increased number of apoptotic cells were seen in Group D. Diabetic rats' nNOS immunoreactivity had increased and eNOS and iNOS immunoreactivity had decreased; nNOS, iNOS and eNOS mRNA levels tended to decrease compared to the control group. PTX ameliorated eNOS, iNOS and nNOS protein levels and apoptotic cells, but did not affect mRNA levels. Conclusion In conclusion, PTX has a healing effect on this damage by affecting NOS expression.