Background: Echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease that mainly occurs in sheep-grazing areas. Recurrence of the disease and its diagnosis are relatively new areas of investigation due to the limited number of cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnosis of the symptomatic recurrent liver hydatid disease and the efficacy of abdominal ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods: Between 1988 and 2006, 412 patients with hydatid cyst of the liver were operated at Erciyes University Medical Faculty. We have considered a growing cyst at the original operative site or at the neighboring hepatic tissue as recurrence and investigated 38 of them for the recurrence of the disease (9.2%). Results: The recurrence usually occurred after 2 years. The majority of the cases were Types 2 and 3 (24 cases; 8 were Type 4 and 6 were Type 1) according to Gharbi classification. In 35 patients with recurrent disease approved after surgical exploration, US was successful in preoperative diagnosis (100%). Overall, the recurrence was demonstrated correctly by means of US in 35 patients (92.1%), and 23 of 26 patients (88.4%) were correctly diagnosed with the use of computed tomography. In our study, in the first 2 years after the operation, the success rate of US examination was 72.7%. The success rate of US rose tip to 100% when the frequency of recurrence is highest. Conclusion: Beyond 2 years after surgery, US examination alone might be enough fir the diagnosis of symptomatic recurrent liver hydatid disease in patients with the suspicion of recurrence. Postoperative early US profile and annual US examination must be performed for at least 5 years to prevent misinterpretation in doubtful cases. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.