Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is a relationship between inflammation and volume status in patients underwent peritoneal dialysis (PD). Patients and method: This cross-sectional study included 159 PD patients. The median duration of PD was 17 (range, 1-151) months. All patients were examined using bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate the ratio of extracellular water to total body water (ECW/TBW), which was used to assess their volume status. The patients were categorized as having one of the following three volume statuses: hypervolemic (above + 2 SD from the mean, which was obtained from healthy controls), normovolemic (between + 2 SD and -2 SD), or hypovolemic (below -2 SD from the mean). Five patients with hypovolemia were excluded from the study. Fifty-six patients were hypervolemic whereas 98 patients were euvolemic. High-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were measured to evaluate inflammation in all patients. Results: hs-CRP value levels were significantly higher in hypervolemic patients compared with euvolemic patients [7.1 (3.1-44.0) mg/L vs. 4.3 (3.1-39.6), p: 0.015, respectively]. Left ventricular hypertrophy was more frequent in hypervolemic patients compared with euvolemic patients (53.6% vs. 30.6%, p: 0.004, respectively). ECW/TBW ratio positively correlated with hs-CRP (r: 0.166, p: 0.039). Gender, hs-CRP, and residual Kt/V urea were found to be independent risk factors for hypervolemia in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Inflammation is associated with hypervolemia in PD patients. Residual renal functions play an important role to maintain euvolemia in PD patients.