Objective: This study was performed in order to determine the adherence of diabetic patients to the diabetic care rules, factors affecting the adherence, and diabetic care results in Kayseri. Material and Methods: The study was performed in Kayseri. Eight of 99 primary health centers in the province were chosen randomly. A survey was performed through a questionnaire among the population aged 30 and over. A total of 555 self-reported diabetic patients were included in the study. A questionnaire containing 40 items was applied to each individual with diabetes via face-to-face interview method. Results: It was determined that 82.3% of the subjects were on antidiabetic drugs, 20.0% consulted the physician periodically, 71.4% measured their blood glucose level regularly, 59.5% consumed an appropriate diet, 16.8% did exercise regularly, and 25.2% performed food care. There was a positive correlation between general health rating and diabetic care scores. According to multiple regression analysis, duration of diabetes was negatively correlated, while health insurance, duration of education, and education about diabetes was positively correlated with diabetic care scores. Conclusion: When developing clinical management programs for patients with diabetes, duration of diabetes, health insurance and educational level should be considered and the patients must be educated in diabetes.