Our aim was to see the levels of lipoprotein (a) (Lp (a)) in patients with gangrenous or non-gangrenous diabetic foot lesions. Twenty-two patients with gangrenous foot lesions, I I with non-gangrenous foot lesions and 10 healthy subjects were included in the study. All the patients had similar glycemic control and duration of diabetes. The main outcome measure was serum Lp (a) levels in both group of patients with diabetes and healthy subjects. Diabetic patients with gangrenous foot lesions had significantly higher Lp (a) levels (83.8 +/- 8.3 mg/dl) than the patients with non-gangrenous foot lesions (38.3 +/- 5.8 mg/dl) and healthy subjects (35.6 +/- 4.2 mg/dl). Lp (a) levels were not significantly different in healthy subjects and in patients with nongangrenous foot lesions. Lp (a) levels may have a pathogenetic role in the development of gangrenous foot lesions in patients with diabetes mellitus. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.