Objective Serum albumin level is considered to be a marker reflecting the nutritional status in both healthy subjects and patients with malignancies. In this study we sought to investigate the association between pretransplantation serum albumin levels and prognosis among patients with leukemia who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). Methods We retrospectively analyzed the data of 102 patients who underwent alloHSCT from 2004 to 2010. Pretransplant serum albumin, D-dimer, creatinine, and fibrinogen levels drawn within 10 days before transplantation were obtained from patient files. All parameters were divided into 2 groups: normal levels (group 1) versus abnormal levels (group 2). Our normal range of serum albumin is 3.2-5.2 g/dL; patients with pretransplantation albumin level ≥3.2 g/dL were included in group 1 versus group 2 with <3.2 g/dL. Results The patients included 42 (41.1%) female and 60 (58.9%) male patients. The diagnoses were acute myeloblastic leukemia in 65 (63.7%) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in 37 (36.3%). The median age was 26.0 years (range, 13-57). Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that patients with serum albumin levels <3.2 g/dL experienced significantly lower overall survival (OS) compared with ≥3.2 g/dL (hazard ratio [HR] 2.32 [range, 1.23-4.54] and HR 2.70 [range 1.38-5.26], respectively; P =.009). The median (range) OS in group 2 was 230.0 (184.0-544.0) days versus 570.5 (249.5-1,101.0) days in group 1 (P =.007). For disease free survival (DFS) evaluation, univariate and multivariate analysis showed that patients with serum albumin levels <3.2 g/dL had significantly lower values compared with patients with serum albumin ≥3.2 g/dL. (HR 2.17 [range 0.98-4.76] and HR 2.85 [range, 1.25-6.66], respectively; P =.046). The median (range) DFS in group 2 was 184.0 (61.0-524.0) days versus 445.0 (199.0-917.5) days in group 1 (P =.045). Among the patient characteristics the presence of infection was a significant independent variable for worse OS (HR 2.12 [range, 0.98-4.36], P =.036). The other parameters - age, sex, donor status, time to transplant interval, conditioning regimens, HLA status, and number of total infused CD34+ cells - showed no significant effect on OS and DFS (P =.05). Conclusions Pretransplantation decreased serum albumin levels were associated with poor survival in patients with leukemia who underwent alloHSCT. © 2013 by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.