As a result of rapid developments in production technologies in recent years, flexible job-shop scheduling problems have become increasingly significant. This paper deals with two NP-hard optimization problems: flexible job-shop scheduling problems (FJSPs) that encompass routing and sequencing sub-problems, and the FJSPs with process plan flexibility (FJSP-PPFs) that additionally include the process plan selection sub-problem. The study is carried out in two steps. In the first step, a mixed-integer linear programming model (MILP-1) is developed for FJSPs and compared to an alternative model in the literature (Model F) in terms of computational efficiency. In the second step, one other mixed-integer linear programming model, a modification of MILP-1, for the FJSP-PPFs is presented along with its computational results on hypothetically generated test problems. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.