The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of transdermal nitroglycerin on the survival of an ischemic one-vein flow-through venous flap (FTVF) model in the rabbit ear. Fifteen New Zealand white male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 (n = 5, 10 flaps)- no dressing on the operative wound; Group 2 (n = 5, 10 flaps)-occlusive film dressing group [polyurethane semipermeable membrane (Op-Site((R)))]; and Group 3 (n = 5, 10 flaps)- transdermal nitroglycerine pad (Novartis-Nitroderm TT S 5 mg) on the wound. Nitroderm TTS and the occlusive film dressing were changed daily postoperatively for 3 days. The percentage of the surviving area and the mean extent of the surviving area to the axial vein were calculated on the postoperative 14 h day. Necrotic and surviving areas of flaps were consistent with histopathologic findings. Group 3 (83 percent +/-10.46, 17.4 +/- 3.0 mm) had larger flap surviving areas and longer distances to the axial vein than Group 1 (60 percent +/- 15.29, 11.8 +/- 4.3 mm) and Group 2 (58 percent +/- 10.25, 12.8 +/- 2.8 mm). The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated that postoperatively applied transdermal nitroglycerine significantly increased the ischemic FTVF survival area and the survival width to the axial vein.