Despite their fame and capability in detecting out-of-control conditions, control charts are not effective tools for fault diagnosis. There are other techniques in the literature mainly based on process information and control charts patterns to help control charts for root cause analysis. However these methods are limited in practice due to their dependency on the expertise of practitioners. In this study, we develop a network for capturing the cause and effect relationship among chart patterns, process information and possible root causes/assignable causes. This network is then trained under the framework of Bayesian networks and a suggested data structure using process information and chart patterns. The proposed method provides a real time identification of single and multiple assignable causes of failures as well as false alarms while improving itself performance by learning from mistakes. It also has an acceptable performance on missing data. This is demonstrated by comparing the performance of the proposed method with methods like neural nets and K-Nearest Neighbor under extensive simulation studies. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.