Objective: Childhood maltreatment leads to neuroendocrine changes, which may be associated with an increased vulnerability for psychopathology, such as depression and anxiety in later life. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and orexin A levels in patients with depression and anxiety. The study consisted of 27 female outpatients who presented with depressive and/or anxiety symptoms, and 27 healthy female controls. Childhood trauma history was assessed using the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ-28) in patients and controls. Serum levels of orexin and cortisol were measured in all subjects. There were positive correlations between serum orexin levels and CTQ total score and between orexin levels and some CTQ subscale scores, such as physical and emotional neglect, in patients. Orexin levels in patients with a positive history of physical and emotional neglect were higher than those in patients with a negative history of them. In the controls, there was a positive correlation between emotional neglect score and serum orexin level. There were no differences in serum levels of orexin and cortisol between patients and controls. Orexin levels may be associated with childhood maltreatment per se, rather than psychopathology, such as depression or anxiety.