This study investigated the presence of carotid artery calcifications (CACs) on panoramic radiographs (PRs) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD), and analysed the relationship between CAC prevalence and PD duration. A random sample of 110 PRs were collected from ESRD patients (15 with questionable CACs were subsequently excluded). CACs were found in 26 (27.4%) patients; 10 males (23.3% of all males) and 16 females (30.8% of all females). The overall mean PD period was 4.0 +/- 3.2 years. There was a significant difference in PD period between patients with and without CACs (5.3 +/- 3.1 years versus 3.5 +/- 3.1 years, respectively). To our knowledge, this study has the highest CAC prevalence, is the first to be carried out in ESRD patients being treated with PD and has the largest sample of ESRD patients (n = 95). We believe dentists should carefully evaluate patients' PRs for evidence of CACs, enabling these incidental findings to provide life-saving information.