Background: Behcet's disease (BD), first described in 1937 as a triadic complex of symptoms (oral aphthae, genital ulcers, and hypopyon uveitis), is a chronic, relapsing, multisystemic idiopathic inflammatory disease. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the usability of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of cytokine genes for following up patients with BD and also assess polymorphisms in these genes as to how they influence mRNA expression. Methods: This study investigated the role of the IL1A - 889(C/T), IL1B - 511(C/T), and IL2 - 330(T/G) polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)restriction fragment length polymorphisms and the expression levels of the genes by real-time PCR in BD. Results: The frequency of the IL2 - 330 G allele was found to be significantly higher in patients with BD. A decreased level of IL1A gene expression was found in the patient group with clinically active BD compared to controls. Increased IL1B gene expression levels werefound in patient groups with active, inactive, or ocular BD (p < 0.001). IL2 gene expression level manifested no significant change compared to controls in the patient group with clinically active BD; it increased in the groups with clinically inactive BD or ocular involvement. Conclusion: ILIA, IL1B, and IL2 gene expression, and IL2 promoter polymorphisms, may be valuable markers for predicting risk in the development of BD. We believe that the results reveal the importance of achieving a better understanding of BD and the prospects of developing future therapeutic strategies.