Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in body mass index (BMI), levels of cholesterol, and levels of triglycerides (TGs) among urolithiasis patients with different stone compositions. Materials and methods: Forty-nine patients who had a diagnosis of nephrolithiasis and had undergone open surgery or percutaneous surgery were included, and patients without urolithiasis were randomly selected as controls. Urinary stones were collected and analyzed using infrared spectroscopy. Data relating to patient's age, BMI at diagnosis, serum total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were collected. The stone groups including calcium oxalate monohydrate-calcium oxalate dihydrate (COM-COD), COM, and uric acid were compared with one another and with the control group. In addition, the stone formers group (COM-COD, COM, uric acid, calcium phosphate, and mixed-type stones) was compared to the control group. Results: BMI, TC, and TG levels were significantly higher in stone formers compared with the control group; this association of BMI and TC with stone formation was more prominent in uric acid and COM-COD stone formers, but there was no such prominence for COM stones. LDL-C levels in COM-COD stone formers were significantly higher when compared with COM stone formers. Conclusion: Elevated BMI, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperlipidemia, which are leading components of metabolic syndrome, may be associated with different types of urinary stone formation.