The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of sildenafil citrate on cisplatin-induced ovarian toxicity. Thirty-two female rats were divided into four groups. Group 1: saline control; group 2: cisplatin; group 3: sildenafil citrate; and group 4: cisplatin plus sildenafil citrate group. In groups 2 and 4, the rats were injected with 5 mg/kg cisplatin intraperitoneally (i.p.). In groups 3 and 4, the rats were injected with 1.4 mg/kg sildenafil citrate i.p. The ovaries were removed two weeks later in all groups. Histopathologic examination, follicle counting and classification were performed. The expression of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) was detected immunohistochemically in the ovarian tissues. Sildenafil alleviated cisplatin-induced histopathological changes in the ovarian tissue. Primordial, secondary and tertiary follicles were diminished in group 2 compared with group 1 (p <0.05). Pretreatment with sildenafil citrate preserved primordial follicle count in group 4 compared with group 2, and the difference was statistically significant (p <0.05). According to our results, immunoreactivity intensity of AMH was lower in group 2 compared with group 1 (92.4 +/- 3.97 versus 88.8 +/- 1.77) but not significantly, whereas immunoreactivity intensity of AMH was higher in group 4 compared with group 2 (88.8 +/- 1.77 versus 94.1 +/- 2.36; p<0.05). Our results demonstrated that pretreatment with sildenafil citrate is beneficial for protecting the ovaries from cisplatin-induced damage. Sildenafil citrate can be a choice for fertility preservation.