This research concerns the development of solvent-cast lyophilised composite sponges in the bioactive glass-alginate- chitosan system for alveolar bone tissue maintenance following tooth extraction. Hydroxyapatite formed on the surfaces of pure alginate, 50: 50 alginate: chitosan blend and pure chitosan sponges blended with 10 wt.% bioactive glass within 7 days of exposure to simulated body fluid, indicating that they possess the potential to stimulate bone tissue formation. In the absence of bioactive glass, pure chitosan sponges also demonstrated in vitro bioactivity, to a lesser extent; unlike pure alginate and 50: 50 alginate: chitosan blend, which did not. All samples formed macroporous sponges whose biocompatibility with human osteosarcoma cells increased as a function of chitosan-content. Polyelectrolyte complex formation between alginate and chitosan, and the incorporation of bioactive glass were found to increase the swelling capacity of the sponges in SBF. The findings of this study demonstrate that, bioactive glass-chitosan sponges are the favoured candidates for alveolar bone tissue augmentation as their rate of hydroxyapatite formation and biocompatibility are superior to those of the other samples.