Modifying Hargreaves-Samani equation with meteorological variables for estimation of reference evapotranspiration in Turkey

Cobaner M., ÇITAKOĞLU H. , HAKTANIR T. , Kisi O.

HYDROLOGY RESEARCH, vol.48, no.2, pp.480-497, 2017 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.2166/nh.2016.217
  • Title of Journal : HYDROLOGY RESEARCH
  • Page Numbers: pp.480-497
  • Keywords: calibration, evapotranspiration, HS equation, Penman-Monteith, CALIBRATION


The Food and Agriculture Organization advocates the Penman-Monteith (FAO-56 PM) equation as the standard model for estimation of the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) because it is considered to have better accuracy. However, in regions where meteorological variables such as solar radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity are not gauged, the Hargreaves-Samani (HS) equation is resorted to as an alternative simply because it needs minimum and maximum air temperatures only as the explanatory variables. In this study, first the HS equation is applied to the monthly means of measured temperature data recorded at 275 meteorology stations in Turkey. Next, the coefficients of the HS equation are calibrated using the ET0 values given by the FAO-56 PM equation at all these stations. Next, the HS equation is modified by adding the wind speed as an extra explanatory variable, separately in each one of seven geographical regions of Turkey, which is observed to yield smaller error statistics as compared to the original HS equation. It is concluded that for estimation of the ET0 in regions where meteorological measurements are scarce, the HS equation modified in a similar manner can be used with better precision.