The flame-retardant behavior of calcium hypophosphite (CaHP) was investigated in different thermoplastic polymers including polyamide 6 (PA), poly (lactic acid) (PLA), thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), and poly methyl metacrylate (PMMA). CaHP was used at three different amounts of 10, 20, and 30 wt%. The characterization of the composites was performed using limiting oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning test (UL 94), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and mass loss calorimeter test. According to the test results, CaHP enhances the fire-retardant properties in different levels depending on the polymer type. The CaHP exhibits its flame-retardant effect via the formation of foamed char structure in the condensed phase and via the dilution and radical scavenging effect in the gas phase.