Introduction: Arterial stiffness is a risk marker for cardiovascular events in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Strict volume control strategy has been shown to result in better cardiac functions and control of hypertension in these patients. The aim of the study was to identify the determinants of arterial stiffness and evaluate the changes in cardiac biomarkers in PD patients under strict volume control strategy. Methods: 58 PD patients were enrolled into this prospective observational study. Arterial stiffness determined by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), echocardiography, ambulatory blood pressure and NT-pro-BNP levels were measured at baseline and at first year. Results: The mean age of the patients was 46.4 +/- 14 years. 30 patients were on automated PD (APD) and 28 on continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) group. In both groups, there were significant differences in PWV values at baseline and at the end of the study. A similar decrease was observed with NT-proBNP and PWV levels. In addition, a significant improvement was found in echocardiographic parameters in all patients. Comparison of APD and CAPD groups with respect to change in one year, showed no difference in echocardiographic findings, while the reduction in PWV, NT-proBNP and blood pressure values was higher in the CAPD group. Conclusions: In PD patients, strict volume control leads to a reduction in NT-pro-BNP levels, better control of blood pressure and significant improvements in cardiac functions and arterial stiffness.