This study describes the immunohistochemical and histochemical phenotypes of inflammatory cells in sheep lungs infected with lungworms. A total of 20 naturally infected sheep lungs were used. Protostrongylus spp., Muellerius capillaris, Neostrongylus linearis, and Cystocaulus ocreatus were the chief organisms determined from such lesions, which were of a chronic nature. All the lungs had many developmental stages of the parasites and a similar inflammatory response, which included numerous mast cells, eosinophils, T cells, B cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. In the bronchial and interstitial tissues, the inflammatory cells were dominated by MHCII, CD1, CD4, CD5, CD14, CD21, IgM, and CD172a positive cells, whereas CD2 and WC1 positive cells were detected less. The data provided additional evidence that subsets of inflammatory cells were included within ovine lungs infected with lungworms; however, understanding the entire immune-response process and development of resistance to lungworms in sheep remain to be clearly elucidated. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.