The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of pentoxifylline on the renal growth, the epidermal growth factor receptor expression, and renal total nitric oxide content in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Adult male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (the N group), diabetic nephropathy (the DN group), and diabetic nephropathy treated with pentoxifylline at the dosage of 20 mg (.) kg(-1) (.) d(-1), intraperitoneally (the group DNP). Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin intraperitoneally. The kidney wet weight (KWW) and dry weight (KDW), fractional kidney weight (FKW), glomerular volume (VG), renal tissue protein (RTP) contents, and renal tissue total nitric oxide (NO) production were determined after the rats were sacrificed on 10th day. There was a significant increase in KWW and KWD in the DNP and DN groups when compared to the N group (p = 0.000 for the DNP group, p = 0.000 and p < 0.01 for the DN group). In the DN group, FKW was increased for both wet and dry kidney weight (p<0.05 and p=0.001, respectively) while in the DNP group there was increase in FKW only for dry kidney weight. VG was increased in both two diabetic groups (p<0.05), but this increase was less prominent in the rats treated with pentoxifylline. RTP was significantly decreased in the DNP group when compared with the values in the DN group (p<0.05). Immunohistochemically epidermal growth factor receptor expression was increased in diabetic rats, and it was not affected by pentoxifylline treatment. In diabetic rats renal content of total NO was decreased (p<0.05 for the DNP group, p<0.01 for the DN group). in conclusion, the results provide that pentoxifylline may have some beneficial effects on renal changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.