Brown tumors represent the terminal stage of the remodeling processes during primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism. During the last three decades primary hyperparathyroidism has been recognized much more commonly and the increase has generally been attributed to the routine determination of calcium by new automated methods and the advent of new and more objective parathyroid hormone radioimmunoassay techniques. Early diagnosis and successful treatment of the disease have made clinical evidence of bone disease uncommon. While, the mandible is the most frequently involved bone in the head and neck region, maxillary involvement is extremely rare. A case of brown tumor on the maxilla associated with primary hyperparathyroidism is reported. This patient presented multiple skeletal lesions, which are uncommonly seen nowadays. The diagnosis was suggested by the clinical history and confirmed by biochemical, radiological and histopathological determinations. Excision of a parathyroid adenoma normalized the metabolic status. Excision of the maxillary mass led both histo pathological confirmation of the disease and early masticator rehabilitation. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.