The incidence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) due to Echinococcus granulosus is as high as 2000-2500 patients per year in Turkey. Whether genetic characteristics of the Turkish population cause a tendency to the disease is currently unknown. We aimed at studying the role of TAP gene polymorphisms in Turkish children with cystic echinococcosis. For an overview of allelic distribution of TAP1 and TAP2 genes, genotypes of 85 patients with CE and 100 controls were studied. To determine the genotype-phenotype correlation, 81 of the patients whose clinical data were available were analyzed. For TAP1-637, Asp/Gly heterozygosity was significantly more prevalent in CE patients than in controls (20 vs. 4%, odds ratio 6.0), while Gly/Gly homozygosity was less frequent (5 vs. 14%). For TAP2-379, Ile/Val heterozygosity was significantly more prevalent in CE patients than in controls (14 vs. 1%, odds ratio 16.27), while Ile/Ile homozygosity was less frequent (13 vs. 25%). TAP1-637 and TAP2-379 polymorphisms may have a role in causing genetic tendency for CE in children. The data may reflect the genetic properties of the Turkish population or may reveal the minor role of TAP gene polymorphisms in CE. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.