This study aims to investigate and compare the effects of insulin and embryonic stem-cell (ESC) loaded liposomes (LPs) and nanocochleate formulations and their PEGylated forms on the glucose levels. All formulations were characterized considering particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index and encapsulation efficiencies. In-vitro insulin that releases from the formulations was determined using Franz-type diffusion cells. A cytotoxicity test revealed that none of the formulations was toxic to cells in any concentrations. The effects of the formulations on diabetic cells induced with glucose and streptozotocin (STZ) were then investigated in cell culture studies. Although glucose levels were decreased by the formulations after incubation, the liposomal formulations were found to be better. In experiments that were conducted on mice, it was observed again that blood glucose levels decreased successfully when diabetic pancreatic beta TC cells were incubated with the formulations, and all formulations were found to be effective in decreasing blood glucose levels in diabetic mice. Although ESC-loaded LPs were found to be the most effective formulation, LPs and nanocochleate formulations may also be used for the repair of pancreatic cells. This proposed ESC treatment is considered to be an attractive approach and a potential source for cell replacement therapy in the treatment of diabetes.