Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a serious infectious disease and remains a global health problem. There is an increasing need for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents for its treatment due to the emerging multi-drug resistance. Herein, we present the rational design and the synthesis of eighteen new thiadiazolylhidrazones (TDHs) which were synthesized by intramolecular oxidative N-S bond formation reaction of 2-benzylidene-N-(phenylcarbamothioyl)hydrazine-lcarboximidamide derivatives by phenyliodine(III) bis(trifluoroacetate) (PIFA) under mild conditions. The compounds were characterized by various spectral techniques including FTIR, H-1 NMR, C-13 NMR and HRMS. Furthermore, the proposed structure of TDH12 was resolved by single-crystal X-ray analysis. The compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. Among them, some compounds exhibited remarkable antimycobacterial activity, MIC = 0.78-6.25 mu g/mL, with low cytotoxicity. Additionally, the most active compounds were screened for their biological activities against M. tuberculosis in the nutrient starvation model. Enzyme inhibition assays and molecular docking studies revealed enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) as the possible target enzyme of the compounds to show their antitubercular activities. (C) 2020 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.