Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiencies of different irrigation protocols and solutions in the removal of calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2). Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight maxillary incisors were used. Root canals were prepared and filled with Ca(OH)2. Two control (n = 4) and six experimental groups (n = 10) were adjusted: Group 1:1% peracetic acid (PAA) + master apical file (MAF); Group 2: 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) + MAF; Group 3: 9% 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) + MAF; Group 4: 1% PAA + ultrasonic activation (UA); Group 5: 17% EDTA + UA; Group 6: 9% HEBP + UA. The cleanliness of root canal thirds were evaluated with scanning electron microscopy. Statistical analysis were performed ( = 0.05). Results: At coronal thirds; PAA + UA was superior to EDTA + MAF, HEBP + MAF; and PAA + MAF was superior to EDTA + MAF, HEBP + MAF (P 0.05). At middle thirds; PAA + MAF and PAA + UA were superior to EDTA + MAF and EDTA + UA; and, PAA + UA was superior to HEBP + MAF (P 0.05). There were no significant differences among the rest of the experimental groups (P 0.05). Conclusion: Complete removal of Ca(OH)2could not be achieved by none of the irrigants at all root thirds.