Thanks to the developments in implantable biomaterial technologies, invasive operating procedures, and widespread applications especially in vascular disease treatment, a milestone for interventional surgery was achieved with the introduction of vascular stents. Despite vascular stents providing a solution for embolisms, this technology includes various challenges, such as mechanical, electro-chemical complications, or in-stent restenosis (ISR) risks with longterm usage. Therefore, further development of biomaterial technologies is vital to overcome such risks and problems. For this purpose, recent research has focused mainly on the applications of surface modification techniques on biomaterials and vascular stents to increase their hemocompatibility. ISR risk has been reduced with the development and prevalent usage of the art technology stent designs of drugeluting and biodegradable stents. Nevertheless, their problems have not been overcome completely. Furthermore, patients using drug-eluting stents are faced with further clinical challenges. Therefore, the bare metal stent, which is the first form of the vascular stent technology and includes the highest ISR risk, is still in common usage for vascular treatment applications. For this reason, further research is necessary to solve the remaining vital problems. In this scoping review, stent-based major cardiac events including ISR are analyzed depending on different designs and material selection in stent manufacturing. Recent and novel approaches to overcome such challenges are stated in detail.
Keywords—Biomaterials, Vascular occlusion, Drug-eluting
stent, Bare-metal stent, Biodegradable stent, In-stent restenosis, Surface modification.