TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES, vol.68, no.4, pp.2571-2580, 2021 (SCI-Expanded)
Cryptosporidium is a common enteric parasite that primarily affects those immunocompromised susceptible individuals and newborns. Detailed investigations have revealed that Cryptosporidium (C.) oocysts contain dsRNA segments which are recently classified under the Partitiviridae family. The relationship between parasite and virus whether or not affect the clinical outcomes of newborn calf diarrhoea is not apparent. The aim of this study was the identification and characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum virus-1 (CSpV1) from newborn calves. We also aimed to understand that parasite-virus symbiont relationship role in the severity of disease cases. Parasitic screening was performed with the help of morphological examinations, immunoassay and molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. To further identification of C. parvum oocysts, confocal laser, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) image analysis were used for the morphological investigations. Software-based in silico comparison and identity analyses were conducted from the CSpV1 genome for the genomic sequence characterizations. Cryptosporidium prevalence was 56.2% in newborn calf diarrhoeal cases. Virus dsRNA segments isolated from purified and clarified oocysts. Sequence results showed that we have successfully isolated CSpV1 from C. parvum oocysts. Virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) was found to be highly variable and showed a species-specific relationship with their carriers. We also identified that CSpV1 frequency was around 8.8% from diarrhoea-showing newborn calves. Cryptosporidium was strongly associated with diarrhoea at early ages of newborns, but the parasite and CSpV1 relationship is not associated with the severity of newborn calf diarrhoea. The current study provides the first report and molecular characterization of CSpV1 in Turkey.