Multiaxis three-dimensional weaving for composites: A review

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Bilisik K.

TEXTILE RESEARCH JOURNAL, vol.82, no.7, pp.725-743, 2012 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 82 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2012
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/0040517511435013
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.725-743
  • Keywords: Multiaxis 3D weaving, bias yarns, z-yarns, multiaxis 3D fully interlaced preform, orthogonal 3D woven preform, process-property relations, TEXTILE COMPOSITES, WOVEN FABRICS, 3D WOVEN, FEASIBILITY, PREFORMS
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


The aim of this study is to review three-dimensional (3D) fabrics and a critical review is especially provided on the development of multiaxis 3D woven preform structures and techniques. 3D preforms are classified based on various parameters depending on the fiber sets, fiber orientation and interlacements, and micro-meso unit cells and macro geometry. Biaxial and triaxial two-dimensional (2D) fabrics have been widely used as structural composite parts in various technical areas. However, they suffer delamination between their layers due to the lack of fibers. 3D woven fabrics have multiple layers and no delamination due to the presence of Z-fibers. However, the 3D woven fabrics have low in-plane properties. Multiaxis 3D knitted fabrics have no delamination and their in-plane properties are enhanced due to the +/- bias yarn layers. However, they have limitations regarding multiple layering and layer sequences. Multiaxis 3D woven fabrics have multiple layers and no delamination due to Z-fibers and in-plane properties enhanced due to the +/- bias yarn layers. Also, the layer sequence can be arranged based on end-use requirements. However, the multiaxis 3D weaving technique is at an early stage of development and needs to be fully automated. This will be a future technological challenge in the area of multiaxis 3D weaving.