Ocular Changes and Tear Cytokines in Individuals with Low Serum Vitamin D Levels: A Cross-Sectional, Controlled Study


ÇALIK BAŞARAN N., Kırağı D., TAN Ç., ÖZIŞIK L., ÇAĞDAŞ AYVAZ D. N., KOCABEYOĞLU S., ...More

Ocular Immunology and Inflammation, vol.32, no.3, pp.287-294, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 32 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/09273948.2023.2168698
  • Journal Name: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database
  • Page Numbers: pp.287-294
  • Keywords: In vivo confocal microscopy, ocular surface index, tear cytokines, vitamin D deficiency
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: No

Abstract

Background: We investigated the effects of vitamin D on the ocular surface, tear functions, corneal imaging, and tear film cytokine levels. Methods: Fifty-two patients with vitamin D levels were examined in 3 groups according to serum vitamin D levels; 28 in group 1 (<12 ng/ml), 10 in group 2 (12–20 ng/ml), and 14 in group 3 (>20 ng/ml). Ocular surface disease index (OSDI), tear break up time (BUT), lissamine green (LG) staining, Schirmer test, in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), and tear collection for cytokine analysis were performed. Results: The mean OSDI score was 35.2 ± 23.3, 36.2 ± 17.7, 24.4 ± 18.2 (p = .253), TBUT was 6.7 ± 2.5 sec, 9.3 ± 1.8 sec, 11.1 ± 2.8 sec (p < .001), Schirmer test was 16.7 ± 8.5 mm, 18.7 ± 7.6 mm, and 20.2 ± 7 mm (p = .254), median LG staining grade was 1 (0–3), 1 (0–2), 0 (0–1) (p = .008) in group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively. Basal epithelial cell density was 4 027 ± 512 cells/mm2, 4 673 ± 451 cells/mm2, 5 067 ± 817 cells/mm2 (p = < 0.001), sub-basal nerve density was 978 ± 204 μm/frame, 1 236 ± 172 μm/frame, 1 425 ± 290 μm/frame (p = <0.001), median number of long nerve fibers was 3 (2–4) nerve/frame, 4 (3–4) nerve/frame, 4 (3–6) nerve/frame (p = .001), and median grade of nerve fiber tortuosity was 2 (0–3), 2.5 (2–3), 3 (2–4) (p < .001) in group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively. Mean IL-1 β (82.62 ± 15.26, 85.57 ± 17.41, and 66.44 ± 11 ng/ml in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively, p = .002), IL-17 (77.80 ± 24.91, 64.46 ± 25.47, 55.42 ± 12.05 ng/ml in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively, p = .012), and IL-2 (75.7 ± 18.4, 66.13 ± 26.78, and 59.65 ± 16.04 ng/ml in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively, p = .048) levels were significantly lower in group 3, whereas, IL-13 levels were significantly higher in group 3 (16.12 ± 5.24, 19.20 ± 4.90, and 21.6 ± 5.55 ng/ml in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, p = .010). Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is associated with ocular surface changes shown with significant TBUT, LG staining, and tear film cytokine contents. Besides, significant corneal basal epithelial, sub-basal nerve density, and structural sub-basal nerve changes were associated with lower Vitamin D levels.