This study was conducted to determine the extent of Pb absorption into young rats (Rattus norvegicus var. Sprague-Dawley) fed untreated Pb-contaminated soil or Pb-contaminated soil treated with two different sources of P and P + Mn oxide. Data were compared from an in vitro, physiologically based extraction test (PBET) with the animal data to support the validity of the in vitro test to assess bioavailable Pb from a treated Pb-contaminated soil. Soil with a total Pb concentration of 2290 mg kg(-1) was used. Rats were fed 19 different test diets for 21 consecutive days. The test diets represented 95 g AIN93G rat meal kg(-1) diet with varying proportions of silica sand or soil to provide low, medium, or high doses of Pb from either Pb acetate, treated, or untreated soil. Blood, liver, kidney, and bone Pb concentrations were examined. For all four tissues, Pb concentrations for the Pb acetate groups were significantly higher than concentrations for all the soil groups. In general, either triple superphosphate (TSP) or phosphate rock (PR) treatments resulted in significant reductions in tissue Ph concentrations compared with untreated soil. Blood and kidney Pb concentrations for the PR + Mn oxide group were significantly lower than those of the PR group at the low and high doses. Relative bioavailability of pb, as measured in all tissues, was significantly reduced when comparing untreated with amended soil. Correlation between the in vitro and in vivo tests, based on bone and liver tissue, showed that the in vitro test is successful at predicting Ph bioavailability.