Objectives: To evaluate venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk and use of thromboprophylaxis in the acute care hospital setting. Methods: A total of 1701 patients hospitalized for acute or exacerbated chronic medical illnesses or elective major surgery at 11 different hospitals across Turkey were included in the study. Patients at risk and VTE prophylaxis application were retrospectively identified based on medical charts. Results: According to the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) criteria, overall 35.6% (606 of 1701) of the patients were identified to be at VTE risk. Venous thromboembolism-risk was observed in 64.9% of surgical and 23.8% of medical patients, the latter being lower than global Epidemiologic International Day for the Evaluation of Patients at Risk for Venous Thromboembolism in the Acute Hospital Care Setting (ENDORSE) study results; while prophylaxis was prescribed in 39.0% and 38.5% of them, respectively. Contraindication to anticoagulant prophylaxis was observed in 8.7% of medical and 8.8% of surgical patients. Conclusions: VTE remains a risk factor among patients hospitalized across Turkey, since identification as well as prophylaxis of patients at VTE risk seems to be neglected.