Background. After surgical resection for colorectal carcinoma there is a high recurrence rate and, therefore, adjuvant chemotherapy may be useful in some patients. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent in the management of patients with colorectal cancer. However, gastrointestinal injury induced by chemotherapeutic agents may result in bacterial translocation from the gut into the systemic circulation. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may be used to prevent this side effect by means of macrophage activity stimulation.