Treatment options are limited in infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, with carbapenems generally preferred. Disturbingly, however, carbapenem-resistant strains are emerging worldwide. Here we report two clinical isolates, one Escherichia coli and one Klebsiella pneumoniae, each with high-level carbapenem resistance (imipenem minimum inhibitory concentration of 32 mu g/mL). They were isolated following imipenem therapy from two hospital patients who had received imipenem therapy in different regions of Turkey. Both isolates produced OXA-48-like carbapenemases, enzymes so far reported only from Turkey. Both isolates also had group 1 CTX-M-type ESBLs and had lost major outer membrane proteins. OXA-48-like carbapenemases appear to be scattered in Turkey and surveillance to determine their prevalence is warranted. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.