Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the remaining root canal filling material, apical transportation, and crack formation after retreatment with M-Wire Reciproc (VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany) and Reciproc Blue (VDW GmbH) systems in curved root canals. Methods: Twenty-six mandibular first and second molars with mesial roots that had 2 separate canals with angles between 20 degrees and 40 degrees were selected for this study. The root canals were prepared with M-Wire Reciproc size 25 instruments (VDW GmbH), and they were filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply Sirona, Tulsa, OK). The samples were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 13 each) according to the retreatment system used: an M-Wire Reciproc group and a Reciproc Blue group. The canals were retreated up to instrument size 25 and then to size 40 in both groups. After the retreatment procedures, the residual filling material volume, apical transportation, and crack formation were assessed using micro-computed tomographic imaging. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups in the amount of residual filling material (P> .05). The apical canal transportation values were significantly higher in the M-Wire Reciproc group than in the Reciproc Blue group at 1 mm. No significant differences were observed between the groups at any of the other levels with regard to apical transportation (P> .05) The new uncompleted and completed cracks were observed in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of crack and fracture formation (P> .05). Conclusions: The Reciproc Blue system is as effective as the M-Wire Reciproc system in terms of the retreatment of the curved mesial roots of mandibular molars. However, the formation of new uncompleted and completed cracks was found during the retreatment procedures.