Wind erosion and resultant dust emissions create significant risks for land degradation and ecosystem health in arid and semi-arid regions. In these regions, fallowing constitutes a major component of conventional agriculture. The present study was conducted to determine wind erosion quantities and agricultural activity-induced mass transport from fallow lands and to assess the correlations of mass transport with climate and soil characteristics. Experiments were conducted over the fallow lands of two adjacent agricultural enterprises (Altinova and Gozlu, Turkey). Sediment flux was measured with passive traps in wet and dry seasons (QtWET and QtDRY). Mass transport in wet and dry seasons was respectively measured as 11.38 and 11.40 kg/ha in Altinova and as 31.61 and 19.71 kg/ha in Gozlu. Both the differences between mass transport of the enterprises and the differences between Q(tWET) and Q(tDRY) of each enterprise were found to be significant (P < 0.05). Pearson's correlation analysis for the correlations of mass transport with soil characteristics revealed significant correlations with electrical conductivity and soil lime content (r = 0.721 and -0.635) (P < 0.05). Total mass transport from the fallow lands of both enterprises throughout a 7-month period of measurement was estimated at 600 t. Based on current findings it was concluded that fallowing should be abandoned and sustainable soil and land management practices from conventional agriculture like minimum tillage or crop rotations should be introduced.