Fusarium wilt is an economically important fungal disease of common eggplant (Solanum melongena) cultivated in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. Seventy-four isolates of Fusarium oxysporum isolated from diseased eggplant displaying typical Fusarium wilt symptoms were screened for pathogenicity on the highly susceptible cv. 'Pala'. All the isolates tested were pathogenic to eggplant and designated as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melongenae (Fomg). Genetic diversity among a core set of 20 Fomg isolates that were selected based upon geographic locations, were characterized by using pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility grouping (VCG), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) was calculated for each Fomg isolate until 21 days after inoculation (DAI). The most virulent isolate was identified as Fomg10 based on AUDPC, disease severity and vascular discoloration measurements at 21 DAI. At this date, a good correlation was observed between disease severity and AUDPC values for all isolates (r = 0.73). UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic average) cluster analysis of RAPD data using Dice's coefficient of similarity differentiated all the Fomg isolates tested, and indicated considerable genetic variation among Fomg isolates, but isolates from the same geographic region were grouped together. There was no direct correlation between clustering in the RAPD dendrogram and pathogenicity testing of Fomg isolates. Twenty isolates of Fomg were assigned to VCG 0320.