International Animal Science Congress of Turkish and Relatives Communities 2012, Isparta, Turkey, 11 - 13 September 2012, vol.1, pp.142
Until recently, nutritional researches aimed at health promotion, disease prevention, and performance improvement. On the other hand, it is known that animals fed the same diet and environment may perform weight gain, production performance or disease resistance differently. It is well known that bioactive food compounds can interact with genes affecting transcription factors, protein expression and metabolite production. The researches in molecular interactions of foodstuffs have indicated that gene expression is modified by a number of dietary bioactive components such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals as well as phytochemicals (flavonoids, isothiocyanates etc.). Nutrients are dietary signals that are detected by the cellular sensor systems that affect gene and protein expression and, subsequently, metabolite production. So, patterns of gene expression, protein expression and metabolite production in response to particular nutrients or nutritional regimes can be viewed as ‘dietary signatures’. The application of modern molecular biology techniques has the potential to revolutionize animal nutrition, as opportunities to integrate the information coded in the genome to applied animal nutrition because; production is the goal of animal nutritionists. The study of how genes and gene products interact with dietary chemicals to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolize nutrients is called nutritional genomics or “Nutrigenomics”. To explore the effect of dietary components on the genome, the crucial stages of nutrigenomics are transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. These research tools are known as “omics” technologies, should yield new knowledge on the course of molecular processes in animal organisms and a more precise evaluation of the biological properties of feeds. In this review, some nutrigenomics tolls will be evaluated.