Transesterification of croton megalocarpus oil to biodiesel over WO3 supported on silica mesoporous-macroparticles catalyst


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Aziz M. A. A. , Puad K., Triwahyono S., Jalil A. A. , Khayoon M. S. , Atabani A. I. , ...More

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL, vol.316, pp.882-892, 2017 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 316
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.cej.2017.02.049
  • Title of Journal : CHEMICAL ENGINEERING JOURNAL
  • Page Numbers: pp.882-892

Abstract

The transesterification of croton megalocarpus oil with methanol to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was carried out using WO3 supported on silica mesoporous macroparticles (WO3/SMP) as a heterogeneous acid catalyst. The silica mesoporous-macroparticles (SMP) and WO3/SMP were synthesized by sol-gel and impregnation method, respectively. The catalysts were characterized with XRD, FTIR, N2 adsorption-desorption, SEM and TEM. The presence of WO3 gave a negative effect on the crystallinity and surface area of the SMP as evidenced by XRD and N2 adsorption-desorption studies, respectively. Pyridine adsorbed FTIR spectroscopy showed that the concentration of Brønsted and Lewis acid sites was dependent on the WO3 loading on SMP. 2 wt% of WO3 loading on SMP (2WO3/SMP) exhibited the highest intensity of Lewis acid sites which is vital in transesterification reaction. Under the optimum reaction condition determined through response surface methodology (RSM), 2 wt% WO3 loading, 4.5 wt% catalyst amount, 9:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 45 min reaction time and 343 K reaction temperature yielded a 96% of biodiesel product. The highest catalytic activity of 2WO3/SMP may be attributed to the high Lewis acid sites content and the presence of both intra- and interparticle pores of the catalyst that facilitated and enhanced the transport of reactants and products during the reaction.

The transesterification of croton megalocarpus oil with methanol to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) was carried out using WO3 supported on silica mesoporous-macroparticles (WO3/SMP) as a heterogeneous acid catalyst. The silica mesoporous-macroparticles (SMP) and WO3/SMP were synthesized by sol-gel and impregnation method, respectively. The catalysts were characterized with XRD, FTIR, N2 adsorption-desorption, SEM and TEM. The presence of WO3 gave a negative effect on the crystallinity and surface area of the SMP as evidenced by XRD and N-2 adsorption-desorption studies, respectively. Pyridine adsorbed FTIR spectroscopy showed that the concentration of Bronsted and Lewis acid sites was dependent on the WO3 loading on SMP. 2 wt% of WO3 loading on SMP (2WO(3)/SMP) exhibited the highest intensity of Lewis acid sites which is vital in transesterification reaction. Under the optimum reaction condition determined through response surface methodology (RSM), 2 wt% WO3 loading, 4.5 wt% catalyst amount, 9:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 45 min reaction time and 343 K reaction temperature yielded a 96% of biodiesel product. The highest catalytic activity of 2WO(3)/SMP may be attributed to the high Lewis acid sites content and the presence of both intra- and interparticle pores of the catalyst that facilitated and enhanced the transport of reactants and products during the reaction. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.