Backgrounds This study aimed to evaluate the microstructural changes in the peri-implant bone in patients with short implants in terms of implant survival status by using fractal analysis measurements. Results Dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) of 67 patients were examined and included in this study. Fractal analysis and measurement of the crown-implant ratio were performed with ImageJ. The fractal analysis measurement was performed on the DPRs obtained at preoperative (FD0) and in the follow-up periods (after 2 +/- 2 weeks (FD1), 2 months +/- 2 weeks (FD2), 6 months +/- 2 weeks (FD3), and 12 months + (FD4)). A p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Power analyses were conducted for the test results that did not reject null hypothesis. A significant difference was found in the FD1 and FD2 values between the implant survival groups (p < 0.001 and p = 0.023, respectively). The mean FD1 and FD2 values of the success group were significantly higher than those of the failure group. Conclusions Fractal analysis is a useful method to measure the trabecular microstructure of bone in non-standardized dental radiographs. The present study has a low power to reject the null hypothesis because of the low number of cases of implant failure. Therefore, further study with a large sample size is warranted. In clinical practice, the survival of implants may be predicted by analyzing fractal dimension of the surrounding trabecular bone of the implants.