Candida albicans in the oral cavities of pets: biofilm formation, putative virulence, antifungal resistance profiles and classification of the isolates

Hizlisoy H., Dishan A., Bekdik İ., Barel M., Koskeroglu K., Ozkaya Y., ...More

INTERNATIONAL MICROBIOLOGY, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10123-024-00552-4
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes


The study aimed to investigate Candida albicans presence, antifungal resistance, biofilm formation, putative virulence genes, and molecular characterization in oral samples of dogs and cats. A total of 239 oral samples were collected from cats and dogs of various breeds and ages at Erciyes University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Clinics, between May 2017 and April 2018. Among 216 isolates obtained, 15 (6.95%) were identified as C. albicans, while 8 (3.7%) were non-albicans Candida species. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed sensitivities to caspofungin, fluconazole, and flucytosine in varying proportions. Molecular analysis indicated the presence of fluconazole and caspofungin resistance genes in all C. albicans isolates. Additionally, virulence genes ALS1, HWP1, and HSP90 showed variable presence. Biofilm formation varied among isolates, with 46.7% strong, 33.3% moderate, and 20% weak producers. PCA analysis categorized isolates into two main clusters, with some dog isolates grouped separately. The findings underscore the significance of oral care and protective measures in pets due to C. albicans prevalence, biofilm formation, virulence factors, and antifungal resistance in their oral cavity, thereby aiding clinical diagnosis and treatment in veterinary medicine.