The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of carnosine, a biological antioxidant, on the acute cardiac damage induced by a single dose of adriamycin in rats. The experimental design consisted of four groups: Control (saline, i.p.); carnosine (CAR; 10 mg/kg/day, i.p.); adriamycin (ADR; 16 mg/kg on the 14th day, i.p.); carnosine with adriamycin. Carnosine was given 2 weeks before and following adriamycin treatment. Blood samples were collected for analysis of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and plasma antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). The rats were then sacrificed, and the hearts were autopsied for hemodynamic study, ECG, and histopathological examination. Results showed that adriamycin produced evident cardiac damage revealed by hemodynamic change, histological alterations, decreased plasma antioxidant enzymes activities, and increased lipid peroxidation to the control value. Carnosine treatment led to significant attenuation of adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy revealed by normalization of the LVDP, ST interval, CK, SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, and lipid peroxidation. An increase in oxidative stress and inactivation of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT by a single dose of adriamycin were prevented when carnosine was given 2 weeks before and on the same day adriamycin treatment was administered.