A comprehensive review on green perspectives of electrocoagulation integrated with advanced processes for effective pollutants removal from water environment


Othmani A., Kadier A., Singh R., Igwegbe C. A. , Bouzid M., Aquatar M. O. , ...More

ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, vol.215, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 215
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.114294
  • Journal Name: ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Artic & Antarctic Regions, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Communication Abstracts, Computer & Applied Sciences, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, Greenfile, MEDLINE, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Public Affairs Index, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Chemical engineering, Sustainable environment, Biosorption, Electrocoagulation (EC), Electro-deionization, Electro-fenton and sono-chemical treatment, WASTE-WATER, AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS, SURFACTANT ADSORPTION, ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES, PEROXI-COAGULATION, ORGANIC-MATTER, ELECTRO-FENTON, DYE, OXIDATION, EFFLUENT
  • Erciyes University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

The rapidly expanding global energy demand is forcing a release of regulated pollutants into water that is threatening human health. Among various wastewater remediating processes, electrocoagulation (EC) has scored a monumental success over conventional processes because it combines coagulation, sedimentation, floatation and electrochemical oxidation processes that can effectively decimate numerous stubborn pollutants. The EC processes have gained some attention through various academic and industrial publications, however critical evaluation of EC processes, choices of EC processes for various pollutants, process parameters, mechanisms, commercial EC technologies and performance enhancement via other degradation processes (DPs) integration have not been comprehensively covered to date. Therefore, the major objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of 20 years of literature covering EC fundamentals, key process factors for a reactor design, process implementation, current challenges and performance enhancement by coupling EC with pivotal pollutant DPs including, electro/photo-Fenton (E/P-F), photocatalysis, sono-chemical treatment, ozonation, indirect electrochemical/advanced oxidation (AO), and biosorption that have substantially reduced metals, pathogens, toxic compound BOD, COD, colors in wastewater. The results suggest that the optimum treatment time, current density, pulse frequency, shaking speed and spaced electrode improve the pollutants removal efficiency. An elegant process design can prevent electrode passivation which is a critical limitation of EC technology. EC coupling (up or downstream) with other DPs has resulted in the removal of organic pollutants and heavy metals with a 20% improved efficiency by EC-EF, removal of 85.5% suspended solid, 76.2% turbidity, 88.9% BOD, 79.7% COD and 93% color by EC-electroflotation, 100% decolorization by EC-electrochemical-AO, reduction of 78% COD, 81% BOD, 97% color by EC-ozonation and removal of 94% ammonia, 94% BOD, 95% turbidity, >98% phosphorus by aerated EC and peroxicoagulation. The major wastewater purification achievements, future potential and challenges are described to model the future EC integrated systems.