This research was carried out to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for first lactation milk yield (lactation milk yield, 305-day milk yield, lactation length, and dry period) and some fertility traits (calving interval, gestation length and number of services per conception) of Brown Swiss cattle reared at Konuklar State Farm located in Konya province, Turkey. Data were collected on milk yield traits of 3,769 first lactation Brown Swiss cattle during the period from 1990 to 2008. Variance components, genetic parameters, breeding values, and genetic correlations were estimated using multiple trait derivative free restricted maximum likelihood (MTDFREML) fitting an animal model. Heritability estimates were 0.26, 0.25, 0.10, 0.06, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.03 for lactation milk yield (LMY), 305-day milk yield (305 DMY), lactation length (LL), dry period (DP), calving interval (CI), gestation length (GL), and number of services per conception (NSC), respectively. Genetic correlations between milk yield and fertility traits ranged from 0.31 to 0.95 and phenotypic correlations ranged from -0.026 to 0.75. Breeding values were estimated and used to characterize genetic trends across the time period investigated. The results showed that the first lactation milk yield traits can be used as selection criteria for development of effective genetic improvement programme in Turkish Brown Swiss cattle. In addition, the results indicate the essential for scheming an effective schedule for growth of genetic variability to improve the milk yield traits of Brown Swiss cattle in this farm by way of selection.