Background/Aim: The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of olive oil to those of soybean oil on liver tissue regeneration following hepatic resection in rats. Methods: Seventy albino Wistar rats were randomly assigned to seven groups which contained 10 rats each. Group 1 was the sham-treated group; groups 2 and 3 received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) containing soybean oil lipid emulsions (20% Lipofundin MCT/LCT) for 48 or 72 h; groups 4 and 5 received TPN containing olive oil (80%)/soybean oil (20%) lipid emulsions (Clin-Oleic 20%) for 48 or 72 h; group 6 was the control group for 48 h, and group 7 was the control group for 72 h. TPN was given via internal jugular vein, and 70% hepatic resection was performed in the study groups. In addition, hepatic resections with no TPN were performed in the control groups, except the sham group. Relative liver weight, mitotic index, proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index, and carnitine levels in liver tissue samples were used to assess hepatic regeneration. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were measured as an index of lipid peroxidation and oxidative tissue damage. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were parameters for the liver function. Results: The relative liver weight increased significantly with minimal hepatosteatosis in the olive oil treated groups. Lipid peroxidation significantly decreased with near-normal serum levels of the liver function parameters in the olive oil/soybean oil treated groups, and mitotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index reached their maximum level in rats receiving TPN containing any kind of lipid emulsions for 48 h following resection. Conclusions: The use of olive oil/soybean oil lipid emulsions in TPN has important beneficial effects on the liver regeneration, and the antioxidant properties of olive oil originating from its natural components indirectly contribute to the liver regeneration in rats. Copyright © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel.